Saturday, 5 April 2014

Package Management in Ubuntu

Package Management in Ubuntu

apt-get update                      – refresh available updates 
apt-get upgrade                    – upgrade all packages
apt-get dist-upgrade             – upgrade with package
replacements; upgrade Ubuntu version
apt-get install pkg                – install pkg
apt-get purge pkg                 – uninstall pkg
apt-get autoremove              – remove obsolete packages
apt-get -f install                    – try to fix broken packages
dpkg --configure -a              – try to fix broken
dpkg -i pkg.deb                   – install file pkg.deb
(file) /etc/apt/sources.list    – APT repository

Friday, 4 April 2014



ufw enable                       – turn on the firewall
ufw disable                       – turn off the firewall
ufw default allow             – allow all connections by default
ufw default deny              – drop all connections by default
ufw status                         – current status and rules
ufw allow port                  – allow traffic on port
ufw deny port                  – block port
ufw deny from ip             – block ip adress



  CMDS                                                               Detail

ifconfig                                                   – show network information
iwconfig                                                  – show wireless information
sudo iwlist scan                                      – scan for wireless networks
sudo /etc/init.d/networking restart        – reset network for manual configurations
(file) /etc/network/interfaces                 – manual configuration
ifup interface                                          – bring interface online
ifdown interface                                     – disable interface

Thursday, 3 April 2014

How to Save Common.mak After Changing

How to Save Common.mak After Changing in Ubuntu

Its crying need to save COMMON.MAK @ terminal after changing  but Mostly people can not do it .
here I'm going to tell you about it
Just type your commands when you reach to change your " common.mak "
type Following cmd

  • sudo gedit common.mak
it will open this file in file editor after changing into Common.mak just click " save button "

now your file is ready for execute ......


  • Command privileges

    sudo               command - run command as root
    sudo su          – root shell open
    sudo su user  – open shell as a user
    sudo -k           – forget your password sudo
    gksudo           command – sudo visual dialog (GNOME)
    kdesudo         command – sudo visual dialog (KDE)
    sudo visudo    – edit / etc / sudoers
    gksudo nautilus – root file manager (GNOME)
    kdesudo konqueror – root file manager (KDE)
    passwd           – change your password

  • Commands Display

    sudo      /etc/init.d/gdm restart – reset X (Gnome)
    sudo      /etc/init.d/kdm restart – reset X (KDE)
    (file)      /etc/X11/xorg.conf – show Configuration
    sudo dpkg-reconfigure      - reconfigure xserver-xorg-phigh - reset configuration X
    Ctrl+Alt+Bksp    – X display reset if frozen
    Ctrl+Alt+FN     – switch to tty N
    Ctrl+Alt+F7     – switch back to X display 

  • Commands for Package Manager.

    apt-get update           – refresh updates available
    apt-get upgrade         – update all packages
    apt-get dist-upgrade   – version update
    apt-get install pkg      – installing pkg
    apt-get remove pkg   – uninstall pkg
    apt-get autoremove   – removing packages obsotletos
    apt-get -f install         – try to fix packages
    dpkg –configure -a    – try to fix a broken package
    dpkg -i pkg.deb        – install file pkg.deb
    (file) /etc/apt/sources.list    – list of repositories APT 

Wednesday, 2 April 2014

How can Aircrack-ng in install in Ubuntu

1st Step :

Just Download Aircrack-ng from here....
Aircrack-ng 1.2 Beta 2 Download

it will be in compressed format .

2nd Step :

when you will download it it will be downloaded in Downloads directory.
Thats you you have to change your directory for install and unzipped .
just follow the it

open your terminal and type

` sudo -s `
it will change you into Root. and will ask for Password .Just enter the password and hit Enter.


After change in to Root just type Following Commands
Before Install Aircrack-ng you have to Update your APT
just type following Command

` sudo apt-get update `
After its updating you have to install Build-essential in ubuntu
just type Following command
sudo apt-get install build-essential `
After installation of this process we are going to extract your downloaded file
Just type following cmd
` cd Downloads `
this command will change your Directory in to Downloads .Here should be your Downloaded File name with Aircrack 1.2 Beta 2 Or anything else .

3rd Step :

you have to unzip files  from .tar.gz
Just type Following Command

` tar -zxvf aircrack-ng-1.2-beta2.tar.gz `
this command will unzipped your file and will make a folder in same directory with name Aircrack-ng-1.2-beta2

4rh Step :

next step is to change your Directory from Downloads to Aircrack-ng-1.2-beta2
type Following command
 ` cd Aircrack-ng-1.2-beta2 `
hit enter
after it
type a command
` nano common.mak `
this is a file which have to change like this ....

  1.  CFLAGS         ?= -g -W -Wall -Werror -O3 

we have to remove WORD " -Werror " it will like this after changing

  1.  CFLAGS         ?= -g -W -Wall  -O3 

then you have to save this file and type following Cmd

` make `
hit enter

last Step is to make install
type Following command

` make install `

now your AIRCRACK-NG-1.2-BETA2 is installed now
enjoy ...... and share it with your Friends

Installation & System Requirements

Ubuntu Desktop Edition

  • 700 MHz processor (about Intel Celeron or better)
  • 512 MiB RAM (system memory)
  • 5 GB of hard-drive space (or USB stick, memory card or external drive but see LiveCD for an alternative approach)
  • VGA capable of 1024x768 screen resolution
  • Either a CD/DVD drive or a USB port for the installer media
  • Internet access is helpful
Screen resolution will be set at the highest your graphics card can handle but when you boot-up you should be given a "Low graphics mode" option which allows you to set it to something better for your monitor.
Hardware produced in the last few years or with an efficient architecture or machines built for a specific purpose can often work well with less. For example, a netbook with an 8 GB SSD will work well although there wont be much room for saving stuff directly onto the drive so Ubuntu's free 2 GBcloud could help a lot. A machine with a crumbling, 15 year-old, slow, 8 GB, IDE hard-drive probably won't work and doesn't really compare with the netbook anyway. It might be worth trying Ubuntu but really start looking at other distros.
All 64-bit (x86-64) CPUs should be fast enough to run Ubuntu and can run the 32-bit (x86) version as well. For an optimized installation (and especially for those wishing to run more than ~3 GiB of RAM) however, a 64-bit installation CD is available. The 32-bit version tends to be easier to use and runs into less problems.
Ubuntu Desktop 11.04 and up uses Unity as the default GUI while the previous releases used GNOME Panel by default. In order to run Unity the system needs a more capable graphics adapter – see more here or below:
* 1000 ΜHz processor (about Intel Celeron or better)
* 1024 MiB RAM (system memory)
* 3D Acceleration Capable Videocard with at least 256 MB
From experience, we all know that it is recommended to have 2048 MiB RAM to properly run a day to day Ubuntu.
A good start should be with minimum 1024 and recommended 2048 MiB RAM.
Machines that are 10 or more years old (originally preloaded with "Windows ME" or "Windows 2000") that don't meet these guideline will probably require some work to revive (the RAM usually needs to be upgraded to the level described above). You could try a lighter-weight distro or a minimal install of Ubuntu.

The easiest and most effective step towards a minimal install of Ubuntu is to install a lighter-weight Desktop Environment such as Xfce (see Xubuntubelow), LxDE (see Lubuntu (officially supported from 11.10 onward)) or Enlightenment to name just a few of the most popular. Some of the larger applications, such as LibreOffice, could be swapped for very much lighter equivalents but for more information about doing a minimal install please see the guides at